SURVEY RESULTS: The informal economy and implications for estimating green jobs

SURVEY RESULTS: The informal economy and implications for estimating green jobs

EcoDev did a survey about the informal economy and implications for estimating green jobs and the results are as follows:
Total sample: 1956respondents
Valid sample (employed respondents): 1644respondents

 

1. Do you have receive any income through any form of employment (formal or informal)?

 

a) Yes 1644 84.05%
b) No 312 15.95%

 

2. Is your primary job of a formal nature (whether the person is registered, paying taxes, health insurance, pension…)?

a) Yes 878 53.41%
b) No 766 46.59%

 

3. Which one of the following sectors of activity does your primary employment, whether formal or informal, belongs to? (mark only one option):
The total primary employment in Serbia in 2015 have reached 2.558.407 employees (data of the Statistical Office of  the Republic of Serbia), and almost half of employments can be grouped into three sectors: agriculture, forestry and fishing (19,5%), manufacturing industry (16%) and wholesale, retail trade and motor vehicles repair (14%). 43.3 % of the total number of employees are women.
According to the research conducted, in June and July 2016, the data about primary employment by sector of activity are shown in the table below (classification of sector of activity has been taken over by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia).

  Sector of activity

Percentage of employees

1.  Agriculture, forestry and fishing

19,5%

2. Mining

<1%

3. Manufacturing industry

16%

4. Electricity, gas and steam supply

<1%

5. Water supply and wastewater management

1,5%

6. Construction

4,5%

7. Wholesale and retail trade, motor vehicles repair

14%

8. Transportation and storage

5%

9. Accommodation and food services

3,5%

10. Information and communication

2,2%

11. Financial and insurance activities

2%

12. Real estate

<1%

13. Professional, scientific, innovation and technical activities

2,8%

14. Administrative and support service activities

2,2%

15. Public administration, defence and compulsory social security

6%

16. Education

6,7%

17. Health and social care

6%

18. Art, entertainment and recreation

2%

19. Other service activities

2%

20. Activities of households as employers

2,5%

 

4.  Please describe the work you do
The analysis of the respondents’ responses to open questions requested three statements that meet the definition of “green job” given by International Labour Organisation: sustainable economic activity, the emphasis on environmental protection and working conditions of decent work.
The summary results of these three definitions are given in the table below*.

sustainable economic activity

emphasis on environmental protection

working conditions of decent work

2/3 criteria

3/3 criteria (can be considered as a “green job”)

982

328

1196

656

34

* The results are shown according to number of respondents because the statements overlap and it is not possible to implement the percentage scores

To assess the number of “green jobs” in Serbia it was necessary to identify economic activities which support employment that meet minimum requirements to be classified as “green jobs” according to the methodology and definition of the International Labour Organisation.
These green activities aren’t directly recognized by the system and do not exist in official classifications, but the analysis of the survey results and answers that were open type came to results that show that such activities, which generate “green jobs”, in Serbia exist. The results of the sectoral distribution of “green jobs” are shown in the table below.

Sector of activity

Green activity

Number of employees on „green job“performance

Total percentage of employees whose primary job is within listed green activity

Agriculture, forestry and fishing 1) Organic agriculture

7

0,43%

Agriculture, forestry and fishing 2) Sustainable forestry

10

0,61%

Electricity, gas and steam supply 3) Renewable energy

2

0,12%

Water supply and wastewater management 4) Sustainable wastewater management

2

0,12%

Construction 5) Sustainable construction

3

0,18%

Manufacturing industry 6) Recycling industry

4

0,24%

Accommodation and food services 7) Ecotourism

6

0,36%

  TOTAL

34

2,06%

In the situation of lack of data, based on the results, it can be assumed that in Serbia  “green jobs”, in the context of the mentioned green activities, relate to about 52.700 formally employed.The biggest number of green workplaces is generated in the sector of sustainable forestry, organic agriculture and ecotourism. Recycling industry, sustainable construction, renewable energy and sustainable wastewater management – all together do not contribute to the generation of green workplaces as the most common activity.

5. Do you receive an income through some additional activity, in addition to your primary job?

a) Yes 459 52.28%
b) No 419 47.72%

 

QUESTION 5.1 SHOULD BE ANSWERED ONLY IF THE ANSWER ON QUESTION 5. IS: a) Yes
5.1. Is your additional employment of a formal nature (whether the person is registered, paying taxes, health insurance, pension…)?

a) Yes 40 8.71%
b) No 419 91.29%

 

6. Which one of the following sectors of activity does your additional employment, whether formal or informal, belongs to? (mark only one option):

  Sector of activity

Number of employees

Percentage of employees

1.  Agriculture, forestry and fishing

45

9,80%

2. Mining

0

0,00%

3. Manufacturing industry

0

0,00%

4. Electricity, gas and steam supply

0

0,00%

5. Water supply and wastewater management

0

0,00%

6. Construction

12

2,61%

7. Wholesale and retail trade, motor vehicles repair

66

14,38%

8. Transportation and storage

13

2,83%

9. Accommodation and food services

97

21,13%

10. Information and communication

38

8,28%

11. Financial and insurance activities

0

0,00%

12. Real estate

75

16,34%

13. Professional, scientific, innovation and technical activities

0

0,00%

14. Administrative and support service activities

0

0,00%

15. Public administration, defence and compulsory social security

0

0,00%

16. Education

60

13,07%

17. Health and social care

0

0,00%

18. Art, entertainment and recreation

19

4,14%

19. Other service activities

34

7,41%

20. Activities of households as employers

0

0,00%

 

7.  Please describe the additional work you do
The analysis of the responses to the open questions of respondents requested three statements that meet the definition of “green job” given by International Labour Organisation: sustainable economic activity, the emphasis on environmental protection and working conditions of decent work identically as in question number 4 except that this time it was analysed the secondary type  of employment of  the respondents.
The summary results of these three definition are given in the table below*.

sustainable economic activity

emphasis on environmental protection

working conditions of decent work

2/3 criteria

3/3 criteria(can be considered as a “green job”)

313

13

401

187

0

* The results are shown according to number of respondents because the statements overlap and it is not possible to implement the percentage scores

The analysis of respondents’ answers about their additional work led to the result that no additional work is eligible to be considered as “green job”, mostly due to the fact that additional jobs have minimal aspect of placing emphasis on the protection and preservation of the environment.

8. How would you describe the concept of “Green Job“
Answers on this question were not successfully analysed because respondents’ responses were so wide that there was no possibility to find some groups of more general concepts by which the results would be presented.

 

About The Author

adam

No Comments

Leave a Reply